Getting a quadcopter stable in the air isn’t trivial. Stability of a quadcopter relies on the harmonious working of all of it’s parts.
An unbalanced propeller produces excessive vibration. This vibration travels through the entire airframe affecting the handling of the aircraft, produces inaccurate readings by the sensors, and creates premature failure of motor bearings and parts. A balanced propeller is paramount to a stable aircraft. A balanced propeller produces less vibration and draws less current, which results in greater stability and extended flight times. You should balance any propeller before installing it on your aircraft. Balancing a propeller requires the use of a special tool, you guessed it a propeller balancer. The propeller balancer that I use is the Top Flite Propeller balance. It is essentially a shaft held by two magnets. The magnets create a frictionless surface for the shaft to spin freely. Read More…
When choosing a motor, there are several different types to choose from. The first decision is to choose between a brushed motor or a brushless motor.
A brushed motor uses brushes that physically contact the rotating shaft of the motor. This physical connection is a point for wear and inefficiency in a brushed motor. Eventually the brushes will wear and the rotating shaft will gradually corrode.
The benefit of a brushless motor is that there is no physical connection between the electrical moving parts; this makes the brushless motor virtually maintenance free and very efficient.
The future is brushless motors, the only negative is the cost, the initial cost of these motors are higher than brushed motors, but because they are brushless, there are no parts to wear out. Therefore, they are virtually maintenance free and will out last any brushed motor.
The second decision is to choose between an outrunner or inrunner motor. This refers to whether the rotation shaft is on the outside of the magnets (outrunner) or on the inside (inrunner). Outrunner motors are designed for low rpm, high torque applications. Inrunner motors are the opposite as they are designed for high rpm, low torque applications, such as electric ducted fans or small diameter propellers.
The third decision is motor size. The motor size is based on the propeller size. If the motor is too small for the propeller, then the motor will struggle to spin the propeller. If the motor is too large, then the excess weight of the motor will contribute to the overall weight of the quadcopter.
I chose the Great Planes Rimfire .10 35-30-1250 outrunner brushless motors because they are well made motors. They are capable of handling propeller sizes from 10×4.5 to 10×7. These motors make for explosive acceleration and maximum torque, eliminating the need for a gearbox. The faster acceleration is useful for faster stabilizing. The housing is made out of aluminum, which is great for reducing overall weight. They have double-shielded bearings, which make them virtually maintenance-free and efficient.
The Rimfire motors are excellent motors. I used them for Scout simply because I already had them from past projects. A much cheaper and more than capable alternative is the Turnigy 2213.